After the death of Wren, English architecture showed little healthy development, growing more and more feeble during the reigns of the Georges.
Then followed two revivals, a Classical revival about 1820 and a Gothic revival a few years later. The Classical revival was, at first, characterized by rigid copying, rather than by fitness of design, and produced un pleasing results, such as St. Pancras Church, Euston, London. London University, the National Gallery, the British Museum and the Royal Exchange are well-known examples of this style in London. Later it grew less rigid and became more artistic.
The Gothic revival quickly gained popularity, for architects found that it was easier to design buildings suitable for our country and climate in this style than in the Classical. This is not surprising, for the originals from which they copied had, themselves, developed in our land. It is fortunate that this revival came when it did, for, by throwing over the restraints of classicism, it made possible further advances in domestic architecture.
The Houses of Parliament and the Law Courts are two well-known examples of Revived Gothic.
We have now briefly traced the history of Architecture from the building of the Parthenon down to modern times. It has been possible to give readers only a glimpse, but if this glimpse has led to a desire for closer acquaintance with a most interesting subject, this small book has served a useful purpose.
Bow spire. St. Mary-le-bow, London
St. Paul’s Cathedral
St. Paul's Cathedral was commenced in 1675, and practically finished in thirty-five years. Parts of Wren's design do not meet with universal approval, but it is generally admitted that few Renaissance buildings are more pleasing in outline.
The House of Parliament
The Houses of Parliament , designed in the revived Gothic style by Sir Charles Barry, were erected between 1840 and 1850. Although it is possible to find many defects in the design of this building, structure viewed as a whole, is very imposing.
The keep, Rochester, appears to have been begun in 1140.
DOWN to the eleventh century it is not too much to say that stone fortifications were the exception and palisaded earthworks the general rule in all places where Roman works were not already in existence.
There were practically no fortresses such as the French called " castella " in the land before the Norman Conquest. In Saxon times the burh or burg had been thrown up around the town as a protection to the community against the Danes ; the Norman castle was not created to defend the community but to protect the conquering foreigner from his neighbours.
The early Norman castles, many of which were constructed in a few months, were generally of the timbered motte and bailey type. These consisted of a mound- -in most cases artificial, but sometimes partly or wholly natural—called a motte, with a ditch at its base, and a stockade round the crown of it. Within the stockade was a tower, also built of timber. Attached to the motte was a courtyard or bailey, enclosed by a ditch, bank, and stockade. The shape of the bailey depended on local conditions and was generally irregular. The motte was, as a rule, on the line of the outer (bailey) defences on a side or in an angle remote from the main entrance. In some cases it was central.
Plan of Trescastle, Bregon Wales
A, entrance to Bailey; B, bailey; C, entrance to motte; D, stockaded summit. The ditch, E, at the foot of the mound, joined the main bailey ditch on the sides next to the bailey, F.
A great number of castles which were originally of the motte and bailey type still exist, such as Arundel, Dunster, Ely, Berkhampstead, Windsor, etc. But it must be remembered when studying types of castles that time wit¬nessed a great change in both their construction and uses.
There was also another type of early Norman castle, a castle founded on a rocky site. In this type, as at Ludlow, there was a stone wall defended by a strong gatehouse and a certain number of towers, but at first there was, strictly speaking, no keep.
The Shell Keep was the form of work usually selected by the Norman builder when he was improving one of the old palisaded mound castles. The outer, or bailey, defences were replaced by a strong stone wall, called a curtain wall, which was built across the ditch and up the sides of the mound to join the defences round the edge of the summit. Next, the palisades round the summit of the mound were replaced with a stone wall. This was the genesis of the so-called "shell" keep, which converted the summit of the mound into a strong inner ward.
The configuration of the mound, entirely or partly artificial, governed the shape and size of the keep. Most keeps are polygons of ten or twelve sides : some are round. The walls are usually eight or ten feet thick and from twenty feet to twenty-five feet high.
Within the circle of masonry of the keep were erected the buildings which sheltered the owner and his garrison. These were built, usually of timber, with the ring wall for their back, and faced inwards in the little court.
The shell of masonry upon the mound, however, was by no means the universal form taken by the keep; in some places the timber defences of the mound survived for a long time.
The Keep, Lincoln Castle
An irregular polygon of fifteen faces on the outside, twelve on the inside: doorway approached by a stone stair made in the side of the mound.