Transport being a difficult undertaking, the materials used varied with geological conditions, with the result that local character is strongly marked. Brick, of which no extensive use had been made as a building material in this country since the time of the Roman occupation, now came into its own, more especially in the east and southeast of England, where stone was scarce and clay plentiful. Characteristic features of Tudor brickwork are an effective wall treatment in which different coloured bricks are used to form patterns and " diapers " ; and the elaborately moulded and twisted chimney stacks, which are frequently found even above the roofs of stone built houses. As a rule wrought stone was used for doorways, window mullions and jambs, quoins and copings, as at Horham Hall, Essex Some of the greatest triumphs of Tudor craftsmanship are to be found amongst the palaces and houses built of brick. A local characteristic of chalk districts where flint abounds, is the use of squared flints for walling.
In the neighbourhood of good building stone, houses were built of stone internally. wall panelling oak panelling designs The treatment was simple and at first reflected ecclesiastical motives, for the masons employed were experienced in church building and slow to relinquish traditional methods. Windows in early work had cusped heads and sometimes tracery as in church work (Part I), gradually changing to the Tudor four-centred arch without cusping (Diagram XIV), and finally to the plain square head. Transomes were introduced, as windows became larger and bay and oriel windows developed. There is no more striking feature of the Tudor house than its lofty bay windows (Page 10), and they are not found in any other country. More advance towards a symmetrical elevation is attempted in stone houses than in those built of brick, but symmetry was not yet a governing principle of design and steep pitched roofs, gables, fine chimney-stacks and heraldic finials give a picturesque skyline.
(Left) The Priority Gatehouse, Bromfield, Shropshire
(Right) A stone house at Oundle, Northamptonshire
Gable Finials at Ely and Chester
A special method of construction of wall panelling oak panelling designs is found in the great forest districts where an abundant supply of good oak was available. So called " half-timber " houses were constructed with a framework of stout timbers which were left visible together with the curved struts and braces, giving a pleasing impression of strength and coherence. The spaces between the timbers were filled with lath and plaster, or bricks laid in a variety of patterns. In timber construction projections are readily obtained and a result is the overhanging upper storey which rests on the projecting ends of the first floor joists. In Lancashire and Cheshire, the well known " black and white " half-timber houses, such as Speke Hall (Diagram XVI), are elaborate and much variety is seen in the patterns formed by curved and diagonal braces and oak panels (black), filled with plaster (white). In Kent and Surrey the style is simpler but has additional character in tile-hung walls. Fine ornamental carving, still Gothic in character, was lavished on exposed timbers such as angle posts, brackets, barge-boards, finials (Page 11), and pendants (Diagram XVI).
Two types of house plan were usual, the enclosed courtyard plan and the central hall plan. In both types attention was concentrated on external display and internal comfort rather than upon security, and the number of rooms with wall panelling oak panelling designs was increased in response to the demand of social conditions for greater convenience and privacy. The great hall was still the principal room though it had long ceased to be the general living and sleeping apartment. The disadvantages of the central hearth were obviated by the fireplace in a side wall and, as the fireplace was developed, a deeper recess with the surrounding stonework richly carved (Diagram XVII) superseded the shallow recess with a projecting hood of earlier times. More fireplaces meant more chimneys and instead of isolated shafts these were grouped in well disposed stacks.
The structural timberwork of the interior afforded a fine field for the delicate workmanship in wall panelling oak panelling designs hitherto lavished on church fittings. The roof of the hall, sometimes of the hammer-beam type (Part I), was a special feature ; the lower part of the walls was covered with " linenfold " panelling or hung with tapestry, and in the with-drawing-rooms in larger houses the exposed ceiling beams were moulded and carved, whether the actual ceiling was formed of wood or plaster. Stone carved chimney-pieces, oak doorways and panelling were singled out for elaboration, the tapering spandrils of the chimney-pieces giving opportunity for the introduction of cunning devices and heraldic emblems. Glass, which had been a luxury in the early xvth century, came into general use for windows, in small leaded panes with heraldry emblazoned in colour. Walls, ceilings and windows formed a rich setting for the costumes and furniture of the period. Staircases were not yet designed to serve more than a strictly utilitarian purpose, and were usually narrow and of the old circular newel type.
THE development in domestic wall panelling oak panelling designs architecture-so marked under the early Tudors-was carried still further under Elizabeth. Church building had all but ceased with the Reformation, and the new nobility-who had profited by the dissolution of the monasteries-continued house-building on a scale of increasing magnificence.
National building traditions were too deeply rooted to be suddenly discarded. Gothic structure still persisted and although Renaissance detail had made its appearance on Henry VII's tomb in Westminster Abbey, and was tentatively adopted by the more ambitious builders, an essentially English character was maintained in Elizabethan houses and no real grasp of classic design is apparent. A departure, however, from medieval methods was inevit¬able and a distinctive character was imparted to the early wall panelling oak panelling designs in Renaissance architecture of the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods.
The different foreign influences which contributed to this change can be traced in its development. The introduction came direct from Italy, and decorative detail executed by Italians in Henry VIII's reign has a delicacy and refinement lost in the later work. This direct influence from the fountain head of the Renaissance was short lived. By the time of Elizabeth's accession, the change of religion, and lack of employment under Edward VI and Mary, had driven Italians from the country, and in their place came craftsmen to eork on wall panelling oak panelling designs from Germany and the Low Countries. Through these channels the new manner of design came to stay, and to German and Flemish influence, strengthened by a wide use of pattern books—mostly published in Antwerp—may be attributed the haphazard use of classic features which for a time dominated design. Planning and construction were still carried out by native builders and the ignorant use of the classic " Orders " and new ornament was largely the work of English craftsmen trying to adapt themselves to the new movement.