Peel Towers

Another type of defensive building must be considered-the fortified border manor house, or " Peel " tower. Owing to their position near the Scottish border, where social order was still imperfect, the peel supplied a real want, and one, Cocklaw Tower, Northumberland, was erected as late as the sixteenth century. They are in many respects models of Norman keeps. The lower part is generally quite plain, although the original small windows or loopholes have com­monly been replaced by modern windows.

Tower, Kirk Andrews on Eske, Cumberland

Tower, Kirk Andrews On Eske, Cumberland. Parapets and machicolation are common numerous water-sprouts, often made like stone cannons projecting from the cornice under the battlements.

The Growth of Domesticity

The divergence of the baronial residence from the castle in­creased rapidly during the reigns of the Edwards (1272-1377). It is true fashion changed from time to time, and we find nobles erecting buildings unmistakably military in appearance, such as Hurstmonceaux Castle (Henry VI.) ; but these were the result of ostentation and individual pride rather than of a desire for safety against attacks. There was a growing demand for comfort, luxury, and especially for privacy. Buildings by no means planned for military defence were added at each end of the hall. These additions sometimes developed into one court (Fig. I) and sometimes into two (Fig. 2). An elaborate porch added to the one court plan produced the E plan (Fig. 3). This plan is often erroneously associated with the name of Queen Elizabeth, but it was a natural development which existed both before and after the reign of that monarch



Domestic Architecture—XVth Century

Wanswell Court, glouchestershire

Wanswell Court, Glouchestershire

Wanswell Court is an excellent specimen of a small manor house of the fifteenth century and, though a good deal muti­lated in its details, it re­tains its essential features almost without alteration, the only addition being a wing erected in the seven­teenth century at the west end. It is surrounded by a large and wide over which there were originally two drawbridges.

This hall is interesting from its marking another step in the march of refinement. There is no dais, plainly showing that the master of the house no longer dined with his retainers in the hall, but in its place is a room cut out of the hall by a wall carried half-way up and covered with a flat ceiling. It might well be called the family dining room. This is a big stride in the transition of the medieval baronial hall to the modern hall-an entrance hall with, in some cases, a lounge.

Local Material

In days when transport was neither easy nor rapid it was necessary to make the best of local materials, and the varying qualities of these local materials demanded different modes of treatment. Where building stone was plentiful it was used freely, even in houses o£ the humbler sort.

In Hereford, Shropshire, Chester, and parts of East Anglia and the south­east of England wood was plentiful and consequently many old timber houses are to be found in these districts. In East Anglia clay is abundant ; and we find that bricks were used in this dis­trict hundreds of years before they were in common use in other parts, and that plaster work was freely used as a means of decoration.

Smaller Houses and Shops

Timber, whenever obtainable locally, played a very important part in the construc­tion of small houses, and it will be fitting here to study the origin and development of the "half-timbered house," which is such a pleasing feature of the English countryside. This is clearly demonstrated by Figs. 1 and 2, for the use of which the author is greatly indebted to Miss E. M. Flint, of Walsall Grammar School.

During the fourteenth century " solars," which were probably used as sleeping rooms, were added to many small houses which had previously been single-roomed. No mention can be found of "parlours," or talking-rooms where merchants discussed business, before the fifteenth century. The " shop " was fre­quently in a booth outside, but during the fifteenth century shops of the type shown in the illustration became common. The shop window was fitted with shutters, one hinged at the top, the other at the bottom. The lower was let down into a horizontal position and was used as a kind of table for the display of goods: the upper was raised to form a kind of roof to shelter what was on the stall formed by the lower shutter.

Shop of midiaeval type, elmham, norfolk

Shop of Midiaeval Type, Elmham, Norfolk

"Tudor" Architecture In Relation To Wall Panelling and Oak Panelling

Examples Of Interior Wall Panelling Oak Panelling Designs Workmanship

"Late Stuart" Architecture

At Kensington Gore City Church Wall Panelling Oak Panelling Designs Architecture

"Palladian" Wall Panelling Oak Panelling Designs Architecture

Late XVIIIth Century Wall Panelling Oak Panelling Designs Architecture

The "Regency" Style

Architecture Introduction

Roman Architecture

Byzantine Architecture

Romanesque — Anglo-Saxon

Norman Architecture

Gothic Architecture

Tudor Architecture

Modern Architecture

Rectangular Keeps

Norman Architecture

Military Architecture XIIIth & XIVth Centuries

Domestic Architecture XIVth Century


Gothic Architecture 12th-16th Centuries

'Decorated' Gothic: 14th century

'Perpendicular' Gothic: 15th century

Elizabethan and Jacobean (about 1550 - 1625)

Renaissance Architecture in England: 17th century

Queen Anne and Georgian: 18th Century

The Regency Style (about 1800-1837)

Wall Panelling and Oak Panelling Design Criteria Through The Last 500 Years

Tudor Symmetry Wall Panelling and Oak Panelling Design Criteria Through The Last 500 Years

The English House Interior

Architectural Period and Its Influence on the Design Criteria of Wall Panelling Oak Panelling

The English Vernacular Architectural Periods and Its Influence on the Design Criteria of Wall Panelling Oak Panelling

The English Country House Architectural Periods and Its Influence on the Design Criteria of Wall Panelling Oak Panelling

Wall Panelling and Oak Panelling Design Criteria Through the Last 500 Years