Another type of defensive building must be considered-the fortified border manor house, or " Peel " tower. Owing to their position near the Scottish border, where social order was still imperfect, the peel supplied a real want, and one, Cocklaw Tower, Northumberland, was erected as late as the sixteenth century. They are in many respects models of Norman keeps. The lower part is generally quite plain, although the original small windows or loopholes have commonly been replaced by modern windows.
Tower, Kirk Andrews On Eske, Cumberland. Parapets and machicolation are common numerous water-sprouts, often made like stone cannons projecting from the cornice under the battlements.
The divergence of the baronial residence from the castle increased rapidly during the reigns of the Edwards (1272-1377). It is true fashion changed from time to time, and we find nobles erecting buildings unmistakably military in appearance, such as Hurstmonceaux Castle (Henry VI.) ; but these were the result of ostentation and individual pride rather than of a desire for safety against attacks. There was a growing demand for comfort, luxury, and especially for privacy. Buildings by no means planned for military defence were added at each end of the hall. These additions sometimes developed into one court (Fig. I) and sometimes into two (Fig. 2). An elaborate porch added to the one court plan produced the E plan (Fig. 3). This plan is often erroneously associated with the name of Queen Elizabeth, but it was a natural development which existed both before and after the reign of that monarch
Wanswell Court, Glouchestershire
Wanswell Court is an excellent specimen of a small manor house of the fifteenth century and, though a good deal mutilated in its details, it retains its essential features almost without alteration, the only addition being a wing erected in the seventeenth century at the west end. It is surrounded by a large and wide over which there were originally two drawbridges.
This hall is interesting from its marking another step in the march of refinement. There is no dais, plainly showing that the master of the house no longer dined with his retainers in the hall, but in its place is a room cut out of the hall by a wall carried half-way up and covered with a flat ceiling. It might well be called the family dining room. This is a big stride in the transition of the medieval baronial hall to the modern hall-an entrance hall with, in some cases, a lounge.
In days when transport was neither easy nor rapid it was necessary to make the best of local materials, and the varying qualities of these local materials demanded different modes of treatment. Where building stone was plentiful it was used freely, even in houses o£ the humbler sort.
In Hereford, Shropshire, Chester, and parts of East Anglia and the southeast of England wood was plentiful and consequently many old timber houses are to be found in these districts. In East Anglia clay is abundant ; and we find that bricks were used in this district hundreds of years before they were in common use in other parts, and that plaster work was freely used as a means of decoration.
Timber, whenever obtainable locally, played a very important part in the construction of small houses, and it will be fitting here to study the origin and development of the "half-timbered house," which is such a pleasing feature of the English countryside. This is clearly demonstrated by Figs. 1 and 2, for the use of which the author is greatly indebted to Miss E. M. Flint, of Walsall Grammar School.
During the fourteenth century " solars," which were probably used as sleeping rooms, were added to many small houses which had previously been single-roomed. No mention can be found of "parlours," or talking-rooms where merchants discussed business, before the fifteenth century. The " shop " was frequently in a booth outside, but during the fifteenth century shops of the type shown in the illustration became common. The shop window was fitted with shutters, one hinged at the top, the other at the bottom. The lower was let down into a horizontal position and was used as a kind of table for the display of goods: the upper was raised to form a kind of roof to shelter what was on the stall formed by the lower shutter.
Shop of Midiaeval Type, Elmham, Norfolk