During the nineteenth century there were successive attempts to revive the Greek, Gothic and free classic styles, but they were not altogether successful. Then, during the last quarter of the century, there was another revival of most styles, which has lasted down to the present day. Sir E. L. Lutyens is regarded by many authorities as being the ablest architect of this revival. At first he seemed to favour what might be roughly called the picturesque manner—Gothic with a free use of timber construction. Later he has designed many beautiful buildings which are " Queen Anne " in character. Sullingstead is a good example of his earlier manner and the Salutation of his later. Some prefer his earlier to his later work, but all agree that he has enriched England with many beautiful buildings.
Sullingstead, built in 1896
The Salutation, Sandwich, built in 1913. The house is of red brick with stone groins, and the entrance front, facing north-west, is treated with great simplicity, relieved only by the curved iron balustrading of the steps and the carving of the pediment of the main entrance.
The earliest buildings we find still standing in Britain were erected by the Saxons. None of them are dwellings, for Saxon houses were usually wooden structures and have disappeared. But churches were sometimes, though not always, built of stone.
Some of the later Saxon churches-such as Westminster Abbey, which was founded by Edward the Confessor, the last. Saxon king-were really large. But these have all been replaced by later buildings. It is the smaller churches in out-of the-way places which have sometimes survived. A few still stand almost as their builders left them, but more often they have been altered and enlarged in later times. More often still, a small part only of the original building remains-a tower, perhaps, or a section of wall.
Saxon churches are lofty in proportion to their length and width. The doors have semi-circular heads and are usually rather tall and not very wide. The chancel-the eastern end of the church, where the altar is-is usually square ended, but it may be semi-circular, when we call it an `apse'.
The windows are high up in the walls and are small and narrow and usually round-headed, though sometimes the head is triangular. Sometimes, too, the windows are double, with a short pillar in the centre.
Inside, the nave (the part of a church in which the congregation sits) is divided from the chancel by a round-headed arch which is sometimes high and narrow, like a doorway.
Saxon Church with Apse
Round Headed with Apse
Triangular Headed Window
(Left, top) Saxon Tower, Sompting Sussex (Right, Top) Double Window, Ear's Barton Tower (Left, bottom) Carved Capital (Right, bottom) Long and short work.