We can see Perpendicular work in St. Margaret's Westminster, in Sherborne Abbey, in York Minster, in Canterbury and Winchester Cathedrals, as well as in the buildings mentioned above. Some very fine and lofty church towers, too, such as `Boston stump', Lincs, were built in the Perpendicular style, as well as bridges, market crosses, town halls, almshouses, schools and some of the Oxford and Cambridge colleges.
Several castles, such as War worth and Warwick, were rebuilt or altered at this. time to make them more comfortable and convenient. In mansions and manor houses the Great Hall was still the main room of the house, and it still, very often, had a central fire, was open to the roof, and had two-story sections at each end. But a large window, reaching almost from floor to roof, was now often placed at the dais end of the hall. The solar and other private rooms sometimes had fireplaces built into the stone walls, and upper rooms sometimes had an 'oriel' window-a bay window that is supported on brackets instead of reaching to the ground.
A Greek Temple
The family rooms were still at the dais end of the hall and the kitchen quarters at the other end, beyond the screens, but there were now usually more bedrooms, and rooms for servants and guests were built all round the courtyard on the inner side of the enclosing wall.
Great Chalfield, Wiltshire; Oxburgh Hall, Norfolk; Haddon Hall, Derbyshire; Hever Castle, Kent; Cothay Manor House, Somerset-are all examples of 15th-century domestic buildings.
While English masons were still erecting buildings in the Gothic style, Italian builders were producing architecture of a very different kind.
Early in the 15th century Italians began to take a greater interest than they had done before in the ruins which they could see all around them of buildings erected a thousand or more years before by the Ancient Greeks and Romans. They studied these classical buildings, as we call them, and began to model their own new buildings on them. We call this period of renewed interest in what the Greeks and Romans had done the `Renaissance'. The style in which new buildings were erected at this time we call the Renaissance style.
We cannot understand Renaissance architecture unless we know a little about the classic architecture on which it was modelled.
The finest buildings in Ancient Greece were temples. A temple was a simple rectangular room which : sheltered the statue of the god. All round it, on the outside, there was a colonnade of marble columns supporting In u tels-horizontal blocks of marble which in their turn supported the roof timbers. At each end of the roof there was a triangular space which we call a pediment. The pediments were sometimes filled with statuary.
Greek columns were of three different types or designs. Each type, with its capitals and bases and the lintels or beams above it, is called an `order'. The three orders are called Doric, Ionic and Corinthian.
After the Romans conquered the Greeks they combined these Greek architectural features with others of their own, such as semi-circular' arches and domes. Often they used the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian orders simply as decoration. They even, sometimes, placed columns of all three orders between the windows on different stories of the same building.
After Rome fell in the fifth century A.D. the buildings the Ancient Greeks and Romans had erected fell into ruin and were neglected until the Italians began to study, measure and imitate them centuries later.
Renaissance ideas about architecture gradually spread from Italy over the rest of Europe. They did not begin to influence Britain until the beginning of the 16th century. Then for a hundred years, during Tudor, Elizabethan and Stuart times, Renaissance features were gradually introduced more and more until, at last, the Renaissance style took the place of Gothic entirely.
In Tudor times church building practically ceased, and after Henry VIII's suppression of the monasteries no new abbey buildings were erected either. But many private people became very wealthy and built themselves splendid new mansions.
Tudor mansions were very similar in plan to those of the previous century, but many of them look very different because they were built of brick, a material that was then being made in England for the first time. Sometimes there are patterns on the walls made by arranging lighter or darker bricks in squares or diamonds.
The gate-houses of Tudor mansions are usually very large and impressive, with lofty towers at each corner. The porch of the house itself, sheltering the door leading into the screens passage, is opposite the gate, as before, and the Great Hall is still on one side of the passage while the kitchen quarters are on the other. But the Hall now almost certainly has a fireplace in one wall. Many of the other rooms have fireplaces, too, and the flues lead up to lofty chimney stacks made of brick moulded into all kinds of shapes.
The walls of the principal rooms are covered with wood panelling which is'made up of small rectangles. In each panel there may be a kind of carving which we call 'linen-fold' because it resembles a piece of folded fabric.
The windows in Tudor houses are divided by mullions and transoms into a number of quite small rectangles, some of which have stained glass in them. There is no tracery. The top of each section of window, below the transom, is in the form of a flattened arch. Most windows are only two or three rectangles deep and perhaps four or five wide, but the dais window in the Great Hall is huge and is sometimes a bay window. Upper rooms often have oriels.
(Top left) Brick gatehouse (Top middle) Linen-fold panelling (Top right) Italian style decoration (Bottom left) Brick chimneys (Bottom right) fireplace
(Top left) Bay window (Top right) Door (Bottom) Half-timbered house
The arches over doors are flattened also and have a square hood-mould over them.
In London, St. James's Palace and the gateway into Lincoln's Inn from Chancery Lane are Tudor. Compton Wynyates, Warwickshire; Barrington Court, Somerset; Layer Marney Towers and Leighs Priory, Essex; and parts of Hampton Court Palace are other examples.
Many smaller houses (and a few large ones) have survived from Tudor times which were built of timbers placed a foot or less apart with the panels in between filled in with wattleand-daub (interlaced branches covered with clay and afterwards plastered). Bramhall Hall, Cheshire, and Speke Hall, Lancashire are examples of large mansions of this kind, and there are smaller houses at Blechingley in Surrey, Chiddingstone in Kent and in many other country villages and towns. In such buildings as these each story protrudes a foot or so beyond the one below.
Although Tudor houses were still, generally speaking, Gothic, we find details here and there in the decoration which show that English people were being influenced by Italian ideas. On the great gate-house at Hampton Court, for instance, there are medallions in, terra-cotta in which there are portraits of Roman emperors. They came from Italy. Sometimes carved patterns appear in which vine leaves and grapes are combined with creatures which are half animal and half human. Occasionally brackets are in the form of scrolls like half-unwrapped rolls of parchment. All these are based on Italian Renaissance designs which, in their turn, are based on designs used by the Ancient Romans.